04 Mar 2007
VERDI: Il Trovatore
Il Trovatore, dramma in four parts.
Das Liebesverbot: Grosse komische Oper in two acts.
Opera in three acts. Words and music by Richard Wagner.
Parsifal. Bühnenweihfestspiel (“stage dedication play”) in three acts.
“German poet, dramatist and novelist. One of the most important literary and cultural figures of his age, he was recognized during his lifetime for his accomplishments of almost universal breadth. However, it is his literary works that have most consistently sustained his reputation, and that also serve to demonstrate most clearly his many-faceted relationship to music. . . .
This theme relates to operas based on the works of Friedrich von Schiller.
Here are operas based on French literature from Balzac, Hugo and beyond:
Le Cid, Opéra in 4 acts
I puritani, opera seria in three acts
Zaira, Tragedia lirica in two acts.
Athalia: Oratorio (sacred drama) in 3 acts
Lucrezia Borgia: Melodramma in a prologue and two acts.
La Esmeralda: Opéra in four acts.
Ernani: Dramma lirico in four parts.
Oberst Chabert (Colonel Chabert): Tragic opera in 3 acts.
Otello: Dramma lirico in four acts.
Music composed by Giuseppe Verdi. Libretto by Arrigo Boito after The Tragedie of Othello, the Moore of Venice by William Shakespeare.
A Midsummer Night’s Dream, a comedy in five acts with incidental music.
Le Marchand de Venise (“The Merchant of Venice”): Opéra in three acts.
Gli Equivoci (The Comedy of Errors): Opera in two acts.
Der Sturm: Opera in three acts
The Fairy-Queen: Semi-opera in five acts.
Il Trovatore, dramma in four parts.
Music composed by Giuseppe Verdi 1813-1901). Libretto by Salvadore Cammarano after El trovador by Antonio García Gutiérrez.
First Performance: 19 January 1853, Teatro Apollo, Rome
|Count di Luna, a young nobleman of Aragon||Baritone|
|Leonora, a lady-in-waiting to the Princess of Aragon||Soprano|
|Azucena, a gypsy||Mezzo-Soprano|
|Manrico, an officer in the army of Prince Urgel, and the supposed son of Azucena||Tenor|
|Ferrando, a captain in the Count's army||Bass|
|Ines, Leonora's confidante||Soprano|
|Ruiz, a soldier in Manrico's service||Tenor|
|An Old Gypsy||Bass|
Setting: Biscay and Aragon, 1409
The guard room in the castle of Luna (The Palace of Aljaferia, Zaragoza, Spain). Fernando, the captain of the guards, orders the guards to keep watch while Count Luna wanders restlessly beneath the windows of Leonora, lady-in-waiting to the Princess, whom he loves. Luna's heart is torn with jealousy against his fortunate rival, the troubadour Manrico. In order to keep the guards awake, Fernando narrates the history of the count to the guard. (Fernando: "Once upon a time a father of two sons lived happily.") It appears that a Gypsy of dreadful aspect had once exercised her magic arts upon the little brother of the count, making the child weak and ill, and for this had been burnt alive as a witch. Dying, she had commanded her daughter Azucena to avenge her, which vengeance had been partially accomplished by the carrying off of the younger son. Although no news had been heard of him, the father refused to believe in his son's death, and dying, commanded his son, Count Luna, to seek for the Gypsy.
Garden in the palace of the princess. Leonora confesses her love for Manrico to her confidante, Inez. ("The story of love.") When they have gone, Count Luna hears the voice of his rival. (Manrico, behind the scenes: "Alone and forsaken am I.") Leonora in the darkness mistakes the count for her lover, when Manrico himself enters the garden, and she rushes to his arms. The count recognises Manrico as his enemy, who has been condemned to death, and compels him to fight. Leonora tries to intervene but cannot stop them from fighting. Manrico could have killed the count but, as he explains later to his mother, he mysteriously restrains himself, and escapes.
Camp of the gypsies. The gypsies sing the famous "Anvil Chorus". Manrico at the bedside of his mother, Azucena (Chorus: "See the clouds in heaven's vault."), the daughter of the Gypsy burnt by the count. She is old, but still nurses her vengeance. (Aria: "Flames rise to heaven.") The gypsies break up camp while Azucena confesses to Manrico that after stealing him she had intended to burn the count's little son, but had thrown her own child into the flames instead. Manrico realises that he is not the son of Azucena, but loves her as if she were indeed his mother, as she has always been faithful and loving to him. A messenger arrives and reports that Leonora, who believes Manrico dead, is about to take the veil. Manrico rushes away to prevent her from following out this purpose.
Scene 2: In front of the convent. Luna and his attendants intend to abduct Leonora. (Aria: "Her enlightening smile.") Leonora and the nuns appear in procession, but Manrico prevents Luna from carrying out his plans and instead, joins Leonora and proposes matrimony.
Luna's camp. (Chorus: "In the midst of conflict.") Fernando brings in the captured Azucena. She is recognised by Luna and sentenced to be burnt.
Chamber in the castle, which is besieged by Manrico. Leonora and Manrico live only for each other. (Aria, Manrico: "Yes, I am yours forever.") Ruiz, Manrico's comrade, reports that Azucena is to be burned at the stake. Manrico flies to her aid. (Stretta: "Of the funeral pyre.") Leonora faints.
Before the dungeon keep. Leonora attempts to free Manrico, who has been captured by Luna. (Miserere of the prisoners and aria of Manrico in the turret: "Born on rosette wings.") Leonora begs Luna for mercy and offers herself in place of her lover. She promises to give herself to the count, but intends to take poison before the marriage.
In the dungeon. Manrico and Azucena are awaiting their execution. Manrico attempts to soothe Azucena, whose mind wanders. (Duet: "Home to our mountains.") At last the gypsy slumbers. Leonora comes to Manrico and tells him that he is saved, begs him to escape. When he discovers she cannot accompany him, he refuses to leave his prison. He believes Leonora has betrayed him until he realizes that she has taken poison to remain true to him. As she dies in agony in Manrico's arms she confesses that she prefers to die with him than to marry another. The count enters to find Leonora dead on his rival's arms and orders Manrico to be led to execution. Azucena arises from her couch and when Luna, dragging her to a window, shows her the dying Manrico, she cries in triumph: "He was your brother. Now my mother really is avenged!" and falls dead at his feet. The opera ends with the count screaming in despair.