18 Dec 2008
I mori di Valenza — Ponchielli’s Unfinished Opera
It almost seems as if every composer was entitled to have at least one unfinished work.
Desire and deception; Amor and artifice. In Jan Philipp Gloger’s new production of Così van tutte at the Royal Opera House, the artifice is of the theatrical, rather than the human, kind. And, an opera whose charm surely lies in its characters’ amiable artfulness seems more concerned to underline the depressing reality of our own deluded faith in human fidelity and integrity.
On September 22, 2016, Los Angeles Opera presented Darko Tresnjak’s production of Giuseppe Verdi’s opera Macbeth. Verdi and Francesco Maria Piave based their opera on Shakespeare’s play of the same name.
On September 18th, at a casual Sunday matinee, Pacific Opera Project presented a surprising choice for a small company. It was Igor Stravinsky’s 1951 three act opera, The Rake’s Progress. It’s a piece made for today's supertitles with its exquisitely worded libretto by W.H. Auden and Chester Kallman.
We are nearing the end of Classical Opera’s MOZART 250 sojourn through 1766, a year that the company’s artistic director Ian Page admits was ‘on face value a relatively fallow year’. I’m not so sure: Jommelli’s Il Vogoleso, performed at the Cadogan Hall in April, was a gem. But, then, I did find the repertoire that Classical Opera offered at the Wigmore Hall in January, ‘worthy rather than truly engaging’ (review). And, this programme of Haydn and his Czech contemporary Josef Mysliveček was stylishly executed but did not absolutely convince.
Globalization finds its way ever more to San Francisco Opera where Italian composer Marco Tutino’s La Ciociara saw the light of day in 2015 and now, 2016, Chinese composer Bright Sheng’s Dream of the Red Chamber has been created.
Renowned Polish tenor Piotr Beczala and well-known collaborative pianist Martin Katz opened the San Diego Opera 2016–2017 season with a recital at the Balboa Theater on Saturday, September 17th.
San Francisco Opera makes occasional excursions into the operatic big-time, such just now was Giordano’s blockbuster Andrea Chénier, last seen at the War Memorial 23 years ago (1992) and even then after a hiatus of 17 years (1975).
There is no reason why, given the right performers, second-tier Verdi can’t be a top-tier operatic experience, as was the case with this concert version of I Due Foscari.
Since their first appearance in Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra’s literary master-piece, during the Spanish Golden Age, the ingenuous and imaginative knight-errant, Don Quixote, and his loyal subordinate and squire, Sancho Panza, have touched the creative imagination of composers from Salieri to Strauss, Boismortier to Rodrigo.
Bampton Classical Opera’s 2016 double-bill ‘touched down’ at St John’s Smith Square last night, following performances in The Deanery Garden at Bampton and The Orangery of Westonbirt School earlier this summer.
Daniele Gatti opened the first series of Royal Concertgebouw Orchestra’s season with a slightly uneven performance of Mahler’s Resurrection Symphony. With four planned, this staple repertoire for the RCO meant to introduce Gatti to the RCO subscribers.
Opera San Jose opened a commendably impassioned Lucia di Lammermoor that sets the company’s bar very high indeed as it begins its new season.
The approach of the 2016-17 opera season has brought rising anticipation and expectation for the ROH’s new production - the first at Covent Garden for almost 30 years - of Bellini’s bel canto master-piece, Norma.
Last June, Riccardo Chailly led the Leipzig Gewandhaus Orchestra in Bach’s St. Matthew’s Passion for his last concert as Principal Conductor.
After its world premiere at Royal Opera House in London last year, the German première of Georg Friedrich Haas’s Morgen und Abend took place at the Deutsche Oper Berlin.
Rarely have I experienced such fabulous singing in such a dreadful production. With magnificent voices, Andreas Schager and Dorothea Röschmann rescued Michael Thalheimer’s grotesque staging of von Weber’s Der Freischütz. At Staatsoper Unter den Linden, Alexander Soddy led a richly detailed, transparent and brilliantly glowing Berliner Staatskapelle.
For the penultimate BBC Prom at the Royal Albert Hall on Friday 9 September 2016, Marin Alsop conducted the BBC Youth Choir and Orchestra of the Age of Enlightenment in Verdi's Requiem with soloists Tamara Wilson, Alisa Kolosova, Dimitri Pittas, and Morris Robinson.
“Eccentricity is not, as dull people would have us believe, a form of madness. It is often a kind of innocent pride, and the man of genius and the aristocrat are frequently regarded as eccentrics because genius and aristocrat are entirely unafraid of and uninfluenced by the opinions and vagaries of the crowd.”
When I look back on the 2016 Proms season, this Opera Rara performance of Semiramide - the last opera that Rossini wrote for Italy - will be, alongside Pekka Kuusisto’s thrillingly free and refreshing rendition of Tchaikovsky’s violin concerto - one of the stand-out moments.
Of all the places in Germany, Oper am Rhein at Theater Duisburg staged an intriguing American double bill of rarities. An experience that was well worth the trip to this desolate ghost town, remnant of industrial West Germany.
It almost seems as if every composer was entitled to have at least one unfinished work.
Donizetti never finished his Le duc d’albe, Meyerbeer his Africaine, Schubert his last symphony, Halevy his Noe, and Ponchielli his Mori di Valenza. Ponchielli’s failure to finish this project is a great shame. He worked on it around 1874-75, shortly before the first version of La gioconda, when he was at the height of his powers. The opera had to wait almost 40 years, until before the start of the First World War until Arturo Cadore, a great admirer of the composer’s, set out to finish the job. Fortunately, he was able to do so using essentially Ponchielli’s style to compose the missing fourth act, and to orchestrate the rest of the score.
It was finally performed at the Palais Garnier in Monte Carlo on March 17, 1914 with Lydia Lipkowska as Elèma, Jacqueline Royer as Carmine, a very young Giovanni Martinelli as Fernando, George Baklanoff as Delascar, and Roberto Marvini as the king. It was given in the Milan Arena that July, and finally in Cremona during the ensuing Carnival season. It was seriously considered for the 1958 season in Cremona, but the city authorities decided against it.
Bongiovanni has previously performed a tremendous service to opera lovers by releasing live performances of less well known operas performed in Italy, including many unusual works by composers like Cimarosa, Donizetti, Giordano, Mercadante, Ponchielli, Rossini, and many others. But this recording seems to be different. Rather than being an actual performance at a theater, the booklet mentions a recording in the auditorium in Castelfidardo, and the Sala Maffei in Cremona during January 2007. Let us hope that this will be the first of many such recordings, and that, if no live performances are forthcoming, works like Ponchielli’s Figliuol Prodigo, Mercadante’s I Normanni a Parigi and I briganti as well as Pacini’s Arabi nelle Gallie, Bondelmonte and Lorenzino de’Medici will get the same treatment.
The action of the opera takes place in Madrid and Valencia in the early 17th century, at a time when a large contingent of Moors was still living openly in Spain, and allowed to practice their religion.
Act I takes place in Valencia: As the opera starts, Delascar, head of the Moors , is reading a note that his son has been imprisoned, and sentenced to death. Elèma, his beautiful daughter tells her father that she could save her brother, if only she could speak to the king. Elèma reminds Delascar that she had met King Phillip five years earlier, when he was a guest at Delascar’s home. She had been picking flowers, giving him one as he passed. The king was evidently very taken with her. He kissed the flower, telling her that should she ever need a favor, it was her’s for the asking. He even wrote this on a scrap of paper and gave it to her. Elèma relates the story to her father, but he is doubtful, reminding her that the king is a servant of Rome. Just then, trumpets announce the arrival of an old Spanish knight, Giovanni d’Aguilar, who is a friend of Delascar’s. D’Aguilar, his daughter, Carmine, and her bethrothed, Fernando d’Alabayda, are all on their way to Madrid. Delascar asks D’Aguilar to take Elèma with him to Madrid and introduce her to the King. Of course, D’Aguilar agrees.
During the finale of the first act, Fernando, who had not yet met Elèma admires her beauty and momentarily forgets about Carmine, while Carmine and Elèma become friendly. All the principals leave for Madrid except Delascar.
Act II is in two scenes. The first takes place at the D’Aguilar palace. Elèma admits to Carmine that she is in love when Fernando enters. He tells them that Elèma is thought to be the courtesan of the king, but assures Elèma that he does not believe this to be true, and that he will defend her at all costs. From Fernando’s behavior, Carmine senses that he no longer loves her, but loves Elèma instead.
The scene changes to the gardens of the Buen Ritiro in Madrid. After the chorus comments on what they perceive to be the king’s new mistress (Elèma, of course), Fernando, alone, expresses guilt feelings about now loving Elèma instead of Carmine. Just then, Elèma and the king enter. The king asks Fernando about Carmine, but he just bows and leaves. Elèma asks the king to intercede in favor of the moors, when the latter names his price: a word of love from her, which she refuses, saying that she fears the resulting scorn. The Duke of Lerma enters, telling the king that Fernando has dared to draw his sword in the royal palace. The latter asks for an explanation, and Fernando tells him that a lady’s honor was outraged, pointing to Elèma. The king approves Fernando’s action, asks Elèma for her arm and reminds the courtiers that it is he who reigns.
Act III takes place in the throne room of the royal palace. Carmine, alone, muses about the recent happenings, and realizes that Elèma did not want to steal Fernando’s love from her. Elèma enters, Carmine tells her that she will be her friend in joy and sorrow, and then leaves. Alone, Elèma states that she will go away, but that she wants Carmine to marry Fernando tomorrow. Fernando enters and tells Elèma that he will leave Spain forever the next day. Asked about Carmine, he says that she will forget him. Elèma replies that Carmine will die if he leaves, and begs him for mercy. Fernando states his love for Elèma who inadvertently admits that she loves him in return. He is now happy, but she orders him to marry Carmine tomorrow, which Fernando agrees to do. A crowd is heard screaming and yelling, as they chase an old Moorish man. Fernando runs out with his sword to save him — it is Delascar.
The King, alone, enters with a paper in his hand. It is the edict which would expel the moors that the Duke of Lerma and his followers want him to sign. He says to himself that only Elèma could save her people by becoming the queen of his heart. The Duke of Lerma announces Carmine. Knowing her to be Elema’s friend, the king expresses hope. When he realizes her entreaties have nothing to do with Elema, he becomes furious and signs the document, then announces this to Lerma and the courtiers. Delascar tries to object, but the king tells him it is too late — the decree has been signed. The king also has Fernando thrown into prison for daring to threaten his person.
In Act IV, the moors have returned to Valencia where they plan to board ships for Morocco. They are bitterly lamenting the need to leave Spain, which had been their home for seven centuries, while Delascar expresses his outrage about his daughter’s readiness to sacrifice their honor. He tells the chorus that he plans to join them in exile. They leave, Elèma enters with Carmine, telling her that she will soon be married to Fernando. The latter is brought in by the king, who frees him, and tells him to marry Carmine. Leaving, the king tells Elèma that she will obtain from him all that she wished. Left alone, Elèma expresses her misery at Fernando’s choosing Carmine (forgetting that she had ordered him to),and starts to pray. Her father, entering, tells her that the king has signed a pardon for Delascar, and asks her to what she owes this favor. She replies: “to my prayers, to your daughter’s tears”. He tells her that she prayed for him in vain, that it is his duty to share the fate of his brothers, and hers to follow him. He seems willing to forgive her for the shame she has caused him, but, when she continues to refuse, because love keeps her there, he curses her and stabs her with his dagger. The king and the others enter, as Elèma dies sweetly in Fernando’s arms..
I mori diValenza is the fourth of Ponchielli’s neglected other operas to become available on CD. I Lituani, originally issued on LP in 1979 had been the first of these. This was followed by a long drought, with no further Ponchielli operas showing up in stores until the 21st century, when there was a revival of Marion Delorme in Montpellier, France, which was issued on the Accord label. More recently, I promessi Sposi was given as a concert in Sondalo, Italy, and released by Bongiovanni , followed by I Mori di Valenza on the same label in 2007. I am confident that more of Ponchielli’s works will turn up in the coming years.
Musically, I mori di Valenza has many similarities to La gioconda, but is not quite on the level as the better known work, although that might have been a bit too much to expect. La gioconda is one of the great masterpieces of Italian opera, and has long been a staple of the standard repertory, with the exception of Northern Europe and France. Perhaps, the most striking similarities are between the two soprano roles, both heroines have the same self-sacrificing nature, and both being killed at the end by the baritone.
The two principal roles in Mori di Valenza are Elèma with three arias and Delascar with two. They also have two major duets. They are interpreted by Natalia Margarit and Maurizio Zanchetti respectively. Both are fine singers, although neither has as yet attained stardom and both took part in the previously mentioned concert of I Promessi Sposi in Sondalo. Margarit has also recorded a solo CD of arias from mostly unfamiliar works on the Bongiovanni label, while Zanchetti recorded a complete Chatterton by Leoncavallo for the same firm. The other roles are all taken by other promising young singers.
This recording can be highly recommended to all lovers of Italian opera, but especially those who enjoy Ponchielli and La gioconda.