Subscribe to
Opera Today

Receive articles and news via RSS feeds or email subscription.


twitter_logo[1].gif



9780521746472.png

0810888688.gif

0810882728.gif

Recently in Reviews

Armida in Pesaro

Armida (1817) is the third of Rossini’s nine operas for the Teatro San Carlo in Naples, all serious. The first was Elisabetta, regina di Inghilterra (1815), the second was Otello (1816), the last was Zelmira (1822).

Santa Fe Opera Presents an Imaginative Carmen

Santa Fe opera has presented Carmen in various productions since 1961. This year’s version by Stephen Lawless takes place during the recent past in Northern Mexico near the United States border. The performance on August 6, 2014, featured Ana Maria Martinez as a monumentally sexy Gypsy who was part of a drug smuggling group.

Elgar Sea Pictures : Alice Coote, Mark Elder Prom 31

Sir Mark Elder and the Hallé Orchestra persuasively balanced passion and poetry in this absorbing Promenade concert. Elder’s tempi were fairly relaxed but the result was spaciousness rather than ponderousness, with phrases given breadth and substance, and rich orchestral colours permitted to make startling dramatic impact.

Berio Sinfonia, Shostakovich, BBC Proms

Although far from perfect, the performance of Berio’s Sinfonia in the first half of this concert was certainly its high-point; indeed, I rather wish that I had left at the interval, given the tedium induced by Shostakovich’s interminable Fourth Symphony. Still, such was the programme Semyon Bychkov had been intended to conduct. Alas, illness had forced him to withdraw, to be replaced at short notice by Vasily Petrenko.

Four countertenors : Handel Rinaldo Glyndebourne

Handel's Rinaldo was first performed in 1711 at London's King's Theatre. Handel's first opera for London was designed to delight and entertain, combining good tunes, great singing with a rollicking good story. Robert Carsen's 2011 production of the opera for Glyndebourne reflected this with its tongue-in-cheek Harry Potter meets St Trinian's staging.

Santa Fe Opera Presents The Impresario and Le Rossignol

On August 7, 2014, the Santa Fe Opera presented a double bill of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart’s The Impresario and Igor Stravinsky’s Le Rossignol (The Nightingale). The Impresario deals with the casting of an opera and Le Rossignol tells the well-known fairy tale about the plain gray bird with an exquisite song.

Barber in the Beehive State

Utah Festival Opera and Musical Theatre has gifted opera enthusiasts with a thrilling Barber, and I don’t mean . . . of Seville.

Stravinsky : Oedipus Rex, BBC Proms

In typical Proms fashion, BBC Prom 28 saw Stravinsky's Oedipus Rex performed in an eclectic programme which started with Beethoven's Egmont Overture and also featured Electric Preludes by the contemporary Australian composer Brett Dean. Sakari Oramo,was making the first of his Proms appearances this year, conducting the BBC Symphony Orchestra, BBC Singers and BBC Symphony Chorus.

Santa Fe Opera Presents a Passionate Fidelio

Santa Fe Opera presented Beethoven’s Fidelio for the first time in 2014. Since the sides of the opera house are open, the audience watched the sun redden the low hanging clouds and set below the Sangre de Cristo mountains while Chief Conductor Harry Bicket led the Santa Fe Opera Orchestra in the rousing overture. At the same time, Alex Penda as the title character readied herself for the ordeal to come as she endeavored to rescue her unjustly imprisoned husband.

Die Entführung aus dem Serail @ Hangar-7

We see the characters first in two boxes at an opera house. The five singers share a box and stare at the stage. But Konstanze’s eye is caught by a man in a box opposite: Bassa Selim (actor Tobias Moretti), who stares steadily at her and broods in voiceover at having lost her, his inspiration.

Rameau Grand Motets, BBC Proms

Best of the season so far! William Christie and Les Arts Florissants performed Rameau Grand Motets at late night Prom 17.

Adriana Lecouvreur, Opera Holland Park

Twelve years after Opera Holland Park's first production of Francesco Cilea’s Adriana Lecouvreur, the opera made a welcome return.

Back to the Beginnings: Monteverdi’s Il ritorno d’Ulisse in patria at Iford Opera.

The Italianate cloister setting at Iford chimes neatly with Monteverdi’s penultimate opera The Return of Ulysses, as the setting cannot but bring to mind those early days of the musical genre.

Schoenberg : Moses und Aron, Welsh National Opera, London

Once again, we find ourselves thanking an unrepresentable being for Welsh National Opera’s commitment to its mission.

Count Ory, Dead Man Walking
and La traviata in Des Moines

If you don’t have the means to get to the Rossini festival in Pesaro, you would do just as well to come to Indianola, Iowa, where Des Moines Metro Opera festival has devised a heady production of Le Comte Ory that is as long on belly laughs as it is on musical fireworks.

Janáček’s Glagolitic Mass, BBC Proms

Composed during just a few weeks of the summer of 1926, Janáček’s Slavonic-text Glagolitic Mass was first performed in Brno in December 1927.

Donizetti and Mozart, Jette Parker Young Artists Royal Opera House, London

With the conclusion of the ROH 2013-14 season on Saturday evening - John Copley’s 40-year old production of La Bohème bringing down the summer curtain - the sun pouring through the gleaming windows of the Floral Hall was a welcome invitation to enjoy a final treat. The Jette Parker Young Artists Summer Showcase offered singers whom we have admired in minor and supporting roles during the past year the opportunity to step into the spotlight.

Glyndebourne's Strauss Der Rosenkavalier, BBC Proms

Many words have already been spent - not all of them on musical matters - on Richard Jones’s Glyndebourne production of Der Rosenkavalier, which last night was transported to the Royal Albert Hall. This was the first time at the Proms that Richard Strauss’s most popular opera had been heard in its entirety and, despite losing two of its principals in transit from Sussex to SW1, this semi-staged performance offered little to fault and much to admire.

First Night of the BBC Proms : Elgar The Kingdom

The BBC Proms 2014 season began with Sir Edward Elgars The Kingdom (1903-6). It was a good start to the season,which commemorates the start of the First World War. From that perspective Sir Andrew Davis's The Kingdom moved me deeply.

Le nozze di Figaro, Munich

One is unlikely to come across a cast of Figaro principals much better than this today, and the virtues of this performance indeed proved to be primarily vocal.

OPERA TODAY ARCHIVES »

Reviews

Walter Felsenstein Edition (Komische Oper, 1956-76)
14 Jan 2009

Walter Felsenstein Edition

Some of the more ingenious opera productions of the twentieth century are the work of Walter Felsenstein, who renowned internationally for his efforts in the genre.

Walter Felsenstein Edition (Komische Oper, 1956-76)

Beethoven: Fidelio (1956)
Janáček: The Cunning Little Vixen (1965)
Mozart: Don Giovanni (1966)
Verdi: Otello (1969)
Offenbach: Les contes d'Hoffmann (The Tales of Hoffmann) (1970)
Offenbach: Barbe-bleu (Bluebeard) (1973)
Mozart: Le Nozze di Figaro (The Marriage of Figaro) (1975-76)

Performers: Magda László, Kurt Equiluz, Richard Holm, Heinz Rehfuß, Sonja Schöner, Georg Wieter, Ruth Schob-Lipka, Irmgard Arnold, Christel Oelhmann, Werner Enders, Rudolf Asmus, Herbert Rossler, Anny Schlemm, Eva Maria Baum, Klara Barlow, Fritz Hübner, György Melis, Hanna Schmoock, Peter Seufert, Hans-Otto Rogge, Hans Günther Nöcker, Vladimir Bauer, Erich Blasberg, Uwe Kreyssig, Alfred Wroblewski, Melitta Muszely, Sylvia Kuziemski, Horst-Dieter Kaschel, Heinz Kogel, Ingrid Czerny, Helmut Polze, Ute Trekel-Burckhardt, Barbara Sternberger, József Dene, Helmut Volker, Magdalena Falewicz, Ursula Reinhardt-Kiss.

Conductors: Fritz Lehmann, Václav Neumann, Zdeněk Košler, Kurt Masur, Karl-Fritz Voigtmann, and Géza Oberfrank.

Orchestras: Vienna Symphony Orchestra, Berlin Comic Opera Orchestra.

Arthaus Musik 101305 [12 DVDs]

$134.99  Click to buy

His legacy includes opera films, which have just been restored and released as a set, which allows Felsenstein’s work to be seen afresh. His personal touches, from broad concepts to subtle details, reveal a sensitivity to opera as an art form, as well as the nature of specific works.

Walter Felsenstein (1901-1975) was the founder and, for years, director or the Komische Oper Berlin, one of the premiere ensembles of the former East Berlin. In his long career he was responsible for almost 200 opera productions and also left a legacy of seven opera films, which are now available on DVD in a single set. From his first opera film, a feature release of Beethoven’s Fidelio from 1956 to his last effort in this genre, a film of a staged version of Mozart’s Die Hochzeit des Figaro, the seven works serve as testimony of Felsenstein’s craft and set him alongside such outstanding directors of opera on film as Rolf Liebermann. (Liebermann’s tenure with the Hamburg Opera, from 1959 to 1973, seem to parallel Felsenstein’s years with the Komische Oper in Berlin.) With the release of this set of all the operas, including other documentary footage, the Estate of Walter Felsenstein makes the director’s efforts available to a wide audience.

Felsenstein did not treat each opera the same way, but approached each one individually. He used, for example, the medium of the feature film for Fidelio and arrived at a visual and dramatic interpretation of the work that differs from some of the recent DVDs of stage productions of the opera. Using techniques reminiscent of Sergei Eisenstein in Alexander Nevsky and, to a degree, that of his contemporary Vera Stroyeva whose film of Boris Godunov was released around the same time, Felsenstein freely used visual images and music to convey the sense of the text, as occurs in Marzellina’s first-act aria. Such imagery is important to connoting mood at the climax of the opera, where the forces of nature play a role in Felsenstein’s conception of the work, with storm and sunshine provide one level of interpretation. Moving away from the opposition of darkness and light, Felsenstein used of nighttime scenery for the celebration of Leonore’s reunion with Florestan, with candle-lit crowd scenes and a bonfire going a bit beyond the sometimes simpler depictions of the festivities that occur when the opera is presented on stage. The medium of film also allowed Felsenstein to make the first-act march of the prisoners into light a more important moment in the work, as he almost loses the previously confined men the garden near the citadel to reflect their longing for the light of day and the need to be in free air. This staging makes Pizarro’s concern for reining in the prisoners more understandable then when this scene receives a more prosaic treatment in the foursquare space of a conventional opera stage.

Other touches are worth seeing, such as the moment Leonore (as Fidelio) looks into a mirror and sees beyond her disguise to reveal her feminine image, an element which is inferred in the text, but never reveal to theater audiences until climactic scene in Florestan’s cell. This cinematic trick is tantamount to a musical quotation, which can carry a great deal of meaning within a relatively short time. These and other aspects of the production demonstrate Felsenstein’s deep knowledge of opera, which was part of his professional life since the 1930s. After all, Felsenstein had been involved with productions at the Salzburg Festival and elsewhere in Europe, which gave him the background to support his novel effort at making a film of the opera Fidelio.

As to the musical content of the film, the nature of the singers involved bears attention. The roles of Marzellina and Fidelio in this production involve women with similar voice types, and this differs from the modern preference for more distinctive voice types. The full-voiced Florestan of Richard Holm is a welcome sound, which works well in conveying the musical line. With Pizzaro, the bass-baritone timbre of Heinz Rehfuß [acted by Hannes Schiel] brings a sinister note to the role, which is underscored by his physical presence - while menacing, it is by no means a caricature of the stage villain. His voice is similar to that of Rocco, rather than the sometimes darker voice type that has since come to be part of modern productions.

Some similar comparisons may be made with Felsenstein’s film of Don Giovanni, which dates from 1966, a decade after Fidelio. This is a filmed opera, rather than a feature film based on the opera, and reflects a particular staging of Mozart’s opera. Despite the colorful locations that are found in the libretto of this opera, Felsenstein chose to use a more conventional stage production of Don Giovanni for this film. Even within such an artistic self-restriction, Felsenstein brought his own genius to the result in a film that is as strong dramatically as it is musically. The acting itself stands apart from various other stagings of the opera because of the director’s emphasis on the interactions between characters that often suggest the intimacy of a drama. Through his efforts in filming this opera, Felsenstein does not minimize music in this film but rather intensifies it. The opening scene is quite intense because it is suggests that work is opening in the middle of action already set in motion, and as such the audience must determine what has happened in order to understanding what is occurring on stage. With the interaction between Don Giovanni and the Commendatore, the fight starts as something in which the Don has engaged before, and he is noticeably surprised when his parry wounds the older man fatally. The shots of Don Giovanni’s facial expression are particularly effective and, at a time when opera on film most often trained cameras toward a stage, reveal the multiple cameras Felsenstein used to create his finely honed result.

Even though it involved the traditional stage, Felsenstein used the camera to take the audience beyond the footlights through the angles and viewpoints that move inside the work. In the mid- 1960s, when Felsenstein made this film, televised opera usually involved long shots of the stage, and if the close-ups occurred, they sometimes shows imperfections in the faces of the singer. This is not the case in this effort, which resembles more a feature film. In the title role, György Melis offers a convincing characterization through his singing and acting, which has a parallel in the casting of Anny Schlemm in the role of Donna Elvira. As with other successful productions of this opera, those two principals work well together, but they are not alone, as the ensembles help to shape Felsenstein’s conception of Don Giovanni Through the lens, he made this work come alive to reveal the various personal relationships at the core of the quintessential tragicomedy by Mozart.

While these two films, among several others, are in black and white, Felsenstein also used color for several operas. Verdi’s Othello, which he released in 1969, just a few years after Don Giovanni, is characterized by the bold colors that help to define the work. Filmed on a studio stage, like Don Giovanni, Othello benefits from multiple camera that allow for a variety of camera angles. Felsenstein created a powerful effect in the opening scene of Othello, which include some well-placed close-ups that bring out the tension in the scene not only through their facial expressions, but because they delay the entrance of the title character. In Felsenstein’s hand, the interplay between Iago and Rodrigo is also more intense because the audience is not viewing their exchange a distance from the stage. Rather, the visual proximity underscores the drama and, as a result, intensifies the music. This production is reminiscent of a quite intense presentation of Verdi’s Macbeth a decade later at the Deutsche Oper Berlin, which brought out the interplay between the principals in a similar way. Yet Felsenstein’s film of Othello benefits from the perspective of the camera that guides the viewer into the director’s vision of the work.

In a similar way the latest opera in the set, the one of Mozart’s Hochzeit des Figaro, shows Felsenstein making the most of the stage in a production which benefits from a sensitive combination of traditional and post-modern elements. As with other operas, like Don Giovanni, Felsenstein shows the conductor and the orchestra in the pit for Die Hochzeit des Figaro, and this reminds the viewer of the live quality of the film. This lens takes the viewer closer into a nicely detailed production that could not be appreciated as well from the distance of a seat in the audience. Yet as the production moves along, the somewhat elaborate sets open up to a more representational set. Where Susanna and Figaro’s opening scene was set in an appointed room, the walls open us in later scenes, to allow the actors to move more freely on the stage, as occurs in the same act, when Cherubino hides in Susanna’s room. Yet in the second act, Felsenstein used a single wall to suggest the larger structure in which the performers interact, and this effect, while subtle, also allows the score to emerge clearly and serve to propel the drama.

Such an effect is wholly in Felsenstein’s aesthetic. The comments of Jens Neubert, quoted in the booklet that accompanies the DVD set, are particularly apt: “In his opera films Walter Felsenstein aimed to establish singing and the singing performer as a natural phenomenon who should never appear strange in the eyes of the audience. . . . With his opera films he intended to create a new popular genre by suing the experimental tools of his time in his theatrical-interpretation.” In many ways Felsenstein succeeded in ways that are still finding their way into modern broadcasts of opera. The use of the camera on stage is an element that Felsenstein used to bring the audience into the drama, and it introduces a sense of intimacy that is not always possible on stage, even though it is implicit in the score. The camera angles that Felsenstein used made the exchanges between the characters realistic without introducing details not in the score, which occur in some of the re-thought conceptions of opera that have been produced in recent decades. In this sense Felsenstein deserves attention for the way he enlivened as familiar a work as Don Giovanni without resorting to artifice, and those unfamiliar with his work might want to start with this opera.

One of the surprising films in this set is Felsenstein’s film of Janácek’s Cunning Little Vixen, which dates from 1965. Through his use of oversized sets, including some impressively enormous plants, he created images that fit the work aptly. More than that, the acting conveys the animal world well, with the title character embodying the characteristics of the fox, yet sometimes moving into the human world, as found in the close-ups of her face and eyes. Possible only in film, the images sometimes blur from the costumed animal characters to human ones, with smooth visual transformations fitting the transitions in the score. A difficult opera to find on DVD, this black-and-white production from the mid-1960s is engaging and shows Felsenstein at one of his most imagination moments.

In a similar way, the charming production of Offenbach’s Contes d’Hoffmann in German as Die Erzählungen von Hoffmann, which was released in 1970 is an inspired conception of the opera. Within the framework that Felsenstein conceived for this production, the work holds together well, not only through his characterization of Niklaus, but through the vivid images that are part of each scene. The meticulously decorated sets used in this opera well in this film, which is restored well and reflects the details quite clearly. The tenor Hanns Nocker who plays Hoffmann stands out for the ease with which he has projected his character and the corresponding musical line.

Part of Felsenstein’s success also resides in his use of the vernacular, with German as the language of each of the films. Those familiar with Italian for Mozart’s Da-Ponte operas and Verdi’s Othello and French for Offenbach, especially the well-known Contes d’Hoffmann, may find this initially jarring, but each cast delivers the text facilely. In some ways the sung translation of The Cunning Little Vixen makes the work more accessible for those who may be more familiar with German than Czech. Nevertheless, the DVDs include subtitles for each work in English, French, Spanish, and, of course, German.

In presenting these seven films in this convenient set, the Felsenstein Archive also makes available background material and some historic footage. The second disc of Othello includes a presentation of Felsenstein’s working notes, as well as an interview with the director. With Ritter Blaubart, the materials move logically from text to graphics and, eventually, to footages of a rehearsal of the staged version of that work. Materials like these are found throughout the set, and also include some historic films from Pariser-Leben (1945); Die Fledermaus (1947); Die Kluge (1948); Orpheus in der Unterwelt (1948); and Carmen (1949). Such materials augment the solid information found in the detailed booklets that are included with each film.

This set not only preserves the groundbreaking work of Walter Felsenstein in filming opera, but also makes it available dynamically through the medium of DVD. The restoration involved with the creation of this set, an element documented in the accompanying materials, contributes to the overall effect. With the availability of this set, those interested in opera film have a resource that is essential to understand the technical and artistic accomplishments of one of its more creative artists. Arthaus has done a fine service to opera by making these films available a such of such fine quality and thoughtful presentation.

James L. Zychowicz

Send to a friend

Send a link to this article to a friend with an optional message.

Friend's Email Address: (required)

Your Email Address: (required)

Message (optional):