Recently in Reviews
Desire and deception; Amor and artifice. In Jan Philipp Gloger’s new production of Così van tutte at the Royal Opera House, the artifice is of the theatrical, rather than the human, kind. And, an opera whose charm surely lies in its characters’ amiable artfulness seems more concerned to underline the depressing reality of our own deluded faith in human fidelity and integrity.
On September 22, 2016, Los Angeles Opera presented Darko Tresnjak’s production of Giuseppe Verdi’s opera Macbeth. Verdi and Francesco Maria Piave based their opera on Shakespeare’s play of the same name.
On September 18th, at a casual Sunday matinee, Pacific Opera Project presented a surprising choice for a small company. It was Igor Stravinsky’s 1951 three act opera, The Rake’s Progress. It’s a piece made for today's supertitles with its exquisitely worded libretto by W.H. Auden and Chester Kallman.
We are nearing the end of Classical Opera’s MOZART 250 sojourn through 1766, a year that the company’s artistic director Ian Page admits was ‘on face value
a relatively fallow year’. I’m not so sure: Jommelli’s Il Vogoleso, performed at the Cadogan Hall in April, was a gem. But, then, I did find the repertoire that Classical Opera offered at the Wigmore Hall in January, ‘worthy rather than truly engaging’ (review). And, this programme of Haydn and his Czech contemporary Josef Mysliveček was stylishly executed but did not absolutely convince.
Globalization finds its way ever more to San Francisco Opera where Italian composer Marco Tutino’s La Ciociara saw the light of day in 2015 and now, 2016, Chinese composer Bright Sheng’s Dream of the Red Chamber has been created.
Renowned Polish tenor Piotr Beczala and well-known collaborative pianist Martin Katz opened the San Diego Opera 2016–2017 season with a recital at the Balboa Theater on Saturday, September 17th.
San Francisco Opera makes occasional excursions into the operatic big-time, such just now was Giordano’s blockbuster Andrea Chénier, last seen at the War Memorial 23 years ago (1992) and even then after a hiatus of 17 years (1975).
There is no reason why, given the right performers, second-tier Verdi can’t be a top-tier operatic experience, as was the case with this concert version of I Due Foscari.
Since their first appearance in Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra’s literary master-piece, during the Spanish Golden Age, the ingenuous and imaginative knight-errant, Don Quixote, and his loyal subordinate and squire, Sancho Panza, have touched the creative imagination of composers from Salieri to Strauss, Boismortier to Rodrigo.
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Orchestra’s season with a slightly uneven performance of Mahler’s
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After its world premiere at Royal Opera House in London last year, the German première of Georg Friedrich Haas’s Morgen und Abend took
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Rarely have I experienced such fabulous singing in such a dreadful
production. With magnificent voices, Andreas Schager and Dorothea
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Weber’s Der Freischütz. At Staatsoper Unter den Linden,
Alexander Soddy led a richly detailed, transparent and brilliantly glowing
For the penultimate BBC Prom at the Royal Albert Hall on Friday 9 September 2016, Marin Alsop conducted the BBC Youth Choir and Orchestra of the Age of Enlightenment in Verdi's Requiem with soloists Tamara Wilson, Alisa Kolosova, Dimitri Pittas, and Morris Robinson.
“Eccentricity is not, as dull people would have us believe, a form of madness. It is often a kind of innocent pride, and the man of genius and the aristocrat are frequently regarded as eccentrics because genius and aristocrat are entirely unafraid of and uninfluenced by the opinions and vagaries of the crowd.”
When I look back on the 2016 Proms season, this Opera Rara performance of Semiramide - the last opera that Rossini wrote for Italy - will be, alongside Pekka Kuusisto’s thrillingly free and refreshing rendition of Tchaikovsky’s violin concerto - one of the stand-out moments.
Of all the places in Germany, Oper am Rhein at Theater Duisburg staged an
intriguing American double bill of rarities. An experience that was well worth
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24 Nov 2009
Musical Exoticism: Images and Reflections
Ralph Locke’s recent book on Musical Exoticism is both an historical survey of aspects of the exotic in Western musical culture and a discussion of paradigms of the exotic and their relevance for musicological understanding.
Locke divides his investigation into two major parts, which may
be characterized as 1) methodological, and 2) illustrative, the latter
furnishing numerous examples starting with Händel and Rameau and extending
through to current compositions including cinematic music.
In the first part Locke is careful to differentiate his position on
exoticism and related terms vis-à-vis others who have approached this topic in
the past. Locke’s introductory remarks, in which he elaborates on the
meaning of “exotic” especially as used for Western music, set forth
terms that he will use extensively in subsequent chapters. He broaches, for
instance, an analytical paradigm which he terms “Exotic Style
Only,” modifying this with his own “All the Music in Full Context
Paradigm.” To be sure, both models receive full expression, with
appropriate examples, in the following chapters. Yet the reader is here
prepared for a critical discussion that will demonstrate Locke’s point
that “exoticness often depends not just on the musical notes but also on
their context as well as on other factors, such as the particulars of a given
performance and the musical and cultural preparation of a given
listener.”  Based on this assumption Locke seeks to broaden his
readers’ understanding of the exotic in music while claiming that
“musical exoticism is not “contained in” specific devices.
Rather it arises through an interaction between a work, in all
[author’s emphasis] its aspects, and the listener.”  Before
closing his introductory remarks Locke reinforces such distinctions by
reminding his audience of exotic environments or individual characters, often
portrayed in opera, which are rendered by traditional, “non-exotic
musical means.”  Examples of this tendency for Locke include
Handel’s Tamerlano and Puccini’s Madama
Butterfly, both illustrating a culture or milieu in some way foreign to
the potential audience. Neither work is composed entirely, or even
consistently, of elements that would be identified as distinctly part of an
exotic medium. The synchronization of the listener’s expectations with
the composer’s means and intentions will then yield an exoticism that is,
ultimately, a type of “reception.” 
In these issues marking his approach to the exotic in music Locke is able to
draw on theoretical grounding in the work of fellow musicologists, e.g. Rose
Rosengard Subotnik and Richard Taruskin. Here Locke is especially interested in
approaches that are based not only on “musical analysis” alone but
also those which consider societal components as well as extra-musical
associations. This balance can prove to be difficult to maintain, even among
those scholars who are suggested as leading proponents. As an example, the
passage cited here from Subotnik’s work on Deconstructive
Variations relies on the harmonic analysis of a Chopin score, reflecting a
more text-based and traditional approach; only at the conclusion of the
relevant chapter does the commentary move toward questions of music in society.
Locke admits to the difficulty of submitting much of what he terms
“Western art music,” e.g. sonatas, symphonies, quartets, to an
overriding social analysis. It is surely then a logical first step in the
revisionist approach to musical exoticism here taken that a number of
Locke’s examples show a clear association with some “other”
place and people. [20-21] This enables the author to establish categories of
analysis for his “Full-Context” Paradigm, which may subsequently be
applied to other musical examples or forms. Finally Locke considers the
approaches taken in recent investigations with a specific focus on his chosen
topic. Hence Jonathan Bellman’s and Timothy D. Taylor’s books are
examined for their usefulness in the portrayal of musical exoticism, yet both
are understood by Locke as functioning within the framework of an “Exotic
Style Only” Paradigm, as found in the present study. Locke sets for
himself the task of using the foundation already set by these previous scholars
and of expanding the possible associations of exoticism with further
“crucial and neglected issues.” 
In his proposed new definition of exoticism Locke relies on concepts such as
“Here and There” and “home country or culture.” 
Especially significant in the author’s new definition is a
differentiation between the perceptions of listeners reacting during the
composer’s day and those hearing a piece still performed many years
later. As put succinctly by Locke, these latter “listeners may now be
living in new and different cultural situations and may thus bring different
values and expectations to the work.”  As an enhancement of
suggestions first put forth by Dahlhaus, Locke assembles a “relatively
comprehensive typology”  of stylistic features which have been
typical in Western music perceived as exotic during the past few centuries.
Here he considers not only matters of pitch and harmony or dissonance but also
modal features and repeated patterns of rhythm or melody often derived from
dance. Locke refers to variations on a number of these stylistic features in
subsequent chapters when analyzing specific works and questioning how these
might be perceived by a given listener in a given age as exotic.
In the second major division of his book Locke presents a disciplined survey
of various musical forms from the beginning of the eighteenth century until the
present day in order to arrive at a trajectory of the exotic in music. The
section entitled “Handel’s Eastern Dramas” is intended by
Locke to examine and compare the portrayal of various historical figures in the
operas and oratorios with a relevant geographical anchor. Hence typical despots
from the East, characters in Tamerlano and Belshazzar, are
discussed from the viewpoint of ideological gesture, political message, and
musical style. This depiction is then contrasted with a contemporary display of
even greater geographical variety in Rameau’s Les Indes
galantes. By using similar methods for analyzing musical-dramatic works
from the same period Locke is able to develop, in gradually evolving
chronological segments, an aesthetic of the exotic. This range of aesthetic and
social concerns is then treated from Mozart’s Turkish style to the gypsy
image in Carmen, emerging ultimately into twentieth-century works, a
period starting with the exotic in Madama Butterfly. The reader and
listener are then left — appropriately — with questions concerning
additional works by those very contemporaries discussed, e.g. Gretry and
Massenet, and how such pieces might be fit into the model as it further
evolves. The extensive bibliography will serve, when combined with
Locke’s suggestions for methodology, as a means to explore the topic of
exoticism on many other musical avenues.
Click here for an online preview of Musical Exoticism.