11 Feb 2007
LEONCAVALLO: I Pagliacci
I Pagliacci, dramma in a prologue and two acts.
Opera in three acts. Words and music by Richard Wagner.
Parsifal. Bühnenweihfestspiel (“stage dedication play”) in three acts.
“German poet, dramatist and novelist. One of the most important literary and cultural figures of his age, he was recognized during his lifetime for his accomplishments of almost universal breadth. However, it is his literary works that have most consistently sustained his reputation, and that also serve to demonstrate most clearly his many-faceted relationship to music. . . .
This theme relates to operas based on the works of Friedrich von Schiller.
Here are operas based on French literature from Balzac, Hugo and beyond:
Le Cid, Opéra in 4 acts
I puritani, opera seria in three acts
Zaira, Tragedia lirica in two acts.
Athalia: Oratorio (sacred drama) in 3 acts
Lucrezia Borgia: Melodramma in a prologue and two acts.
La Esmeralda: Opéra in four acts.
Ernani: Dramma lirico in four parts.
Oberst Chabert (Colonel Chabert): Tragic opera in 3 acts.
Otello: Dramma lirico in four acts.
Music composed by Giuseppe Verdi. Libretto by Arrigo Boito after The Tragedie of Othello, the Moore of Venice by William Shakespeare.
A Midsummer Night’s Dream, a comedy in five acts with incidental music.
Le Marchand de Venise (“The Merchant of Venice”): Opéra in three acts.
Gli Equivoci (The Comedy of Errors): Opera in two acts.
Der Sturm: Opera in three acts
The Fairy-Queen: Semi-opera in five acts.
Macbeth: Melodramma in quattro parti.
I Pagliacci, dramma in a prologue and two acts.
Music composed by Ruggiero Leoncavallo (1858-1919). Libretto by the composer based on a crime report.
First Performance: 21 May 1892, Teatro Dal Verme, Milan.
|Canio, leader of the players||Tenor|
|Nedda, Canio’s wife||Soprano|
|Tonio, a clown||Baritone|
|Silvio, a villager||Baritone|
|Two Villagers||Tenor, Baritone|
Setting: In Calabria near Montalto during the Feast of the Assumption between 1865-1870.
During the overture, the curtain rises. From behind a second curtain, Tonio, dressed as his commedia character Taddeo, addresses the audience. (Si può?... Si può?... Signore! Signori!) He reminds the audience that actors have feelings too, and that the show is about real humans.
At three o’clock in the afternoon, the commedia troupe enters the village, and the villagers cheer. Canio describes the night’s performance: The troubles of Pagliaccio. As Nedda steps down from the cart, Tonio offers his hand, but Canio pushes him aside and helps her down himself. The villagers suggest drinking at the tavern. Canio and Beppe accept, but Tonio stays behind. The villagers tease Canio that Tonio is planning an affair with Nedda. Canio warns everyone that while he may act the foolish husband in the play, in real life he will not tolerate other men making advances to Nedda. Shocked, a villager asks if Canio really suspects her. He says no, and sweetly kisses her on the forehead. As the church bells ring vespers, he and Beppe leave for the tavern, and Nedda is left alone.
Nedda, who is cheating on Canio, is frightened by Canio’s vehemence, but the birdsong comforts her. Tonio returns and confesses his love for her, but she laughs. Enraged, Tonio begins to grab her, but she takes a whip, strikes him, and drives him off. Silvio, who is Nedda’s lover, comes from the tavern, where he has left Canio and Beppe drinking. He asks Nedda to elope with him after the performance, and though she is afraid, she agrees. Tonio, who has been eavesdropping, leaves to get Canio. They return, and as Silvio escapes, Nedda calls after him, “I will always be yours!”
Canio chases Silvio but does not catch him and does not see his face. He demands that Nedda tell him the name of her lover, but she refuses. He threatens her with a knife, but Beppe disarms him. Beppe insists that they prepare for the performance. Tonio tells Canio that her lover will surely give himself away at the play. Canio is left alone to put on his costume and prepare to laugh. (Vesti la giubba)
As the crowd arrives, Nedda, costumed as Colombina, collects their money. She whispers a warning to Silvio, and the crowd cheers as the play begins.
Colombina’s husband Pagliaccio has gone away until morning, and Taddeo is at the market. She anxiously awaits her lover Arlecchino, who soon serenades her from beneath her window. Taddeo returns and confesses his love, but she mocks him and lets in Arlecchino through the window. He boxes Taddeo’s ears and kicks him out of the room, and the audience laughs.
Arlecchino and Colombina dine, and he delivers a sleeping potion. When Pagliaccio returns, she plans to drug him and elope with Arlecchino. Taddeo bursts in, warning that Pagliaccio is suspicious of his wife and is about to return. As Arlecchino escapes through the window, Colombina tells him, “I will always be yours!”
As Canio enters, he hears Nedda and exclaims, “Name of God! Those same words!” He tries to continue the play but loses control and demands to know her lover’s name. Nedda, hoping to continue the play, tells him it is Pagliaccio, but he proclaims that he is no clown and he loves her dearly. (No! Pagliaccio non son!) The crowd, impressed by his emotional performance, cheers him.
Nedda, trying again to continue the play, admits that her lover is Arlecchino. Canio, furious, demands the name or her life, but she swears she will never tell him, and the crowd realizes they are not acting. Silvio begins to fight his way toward the stage. Canio, grabbing a knife from the table, stabs Nedda. As she dies she calls, “Help! Silvio!” Canio stabs Silvio and declares, “The commedia is over!”